Initially sold as items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Kalighat-style paintings by Jamini Roy. It is unique blends of oriental and occidental style of painting. Due to this, there are two types of Kalighatpaintings that one can witness, Oriental and Occidental. Indian painting has a very long tradition and history in Indian art, though because of the climatic conditions very few early examples survive. The other mo… In the 19th century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. In these mocking pieces, the austerity of Kalighat paintings is wedded to the simplicity of Japanese prints. They painted historic characters like Rani Lakshmibai, and Duldul the famous horse of Imam Hussain of Karbala. As the name suggests, Kalighat paintings were created around the Kali temple in Kolkata, on the banks or ghat of the Ganga. Gaganendranath Tagore was an Indian painter and cartoonist of the Bengal school. Another theme depicted, dear to the Bengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his disciples. It is said to be developed in the vicinity of the iconic Kalighat Kali Temple on the bank of the Burin Ganga in the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). Oriental style portrays the Indian deities, Hindu Gods and Goddesses, mythological characters and scenes from different epics while Occidental style depicts the everyday life, social evils, crimes, and freedom struggle etc. An important achievement of the Kalighat artistes was that they made simple paintings and drawings, which could easily be reproduced by lithography. The Occidental school of Kalighat paintings depicts the day to day life of common people. Kalighat painting emerged in the 19th century of Calcutta, West Bengal, India in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali temple. Therefore emerged two different styles of the Kalighat painting, the Oriental, and the Occidental. Kalighat Paintings were first painted on the mill-made paper and using the natural and homemade dyes. At present, apart from the Sanskrit theatre, the influence of the European theatre and the indigenous folk culture can also be seen in the theatre art of Bangladesh. The artists also chose to portray secular themes and personalities and in the process played a role in the Independence movement. The alternate discipline of Kalighat painting, known as the “Occidental school,” included pieces that depicted ordinary people engaging in everyday life or captured the changes taking place in Kolkata at the time. 2. High-quality Occidental Wall Art designed and sold by artists. This trend continued up to the early part of the twentieth century and these paintings ended up in museums and private collections. Kalighat painting is perhaps one of the best primary sources to reconstruct the social history of the19th Century ‘Babu culture’ which flourished in Calcutta. It is one of the famous Hindu temples where … The Kalighat painters were very much outsiders, and their popular art style was one of the first instances where anyone called visual attention to the deteriorating effects of British presence on traditional Indian culture. During its manifestation, in the earlier days, it was a community effort. Pattachitra is one of the ancient artworks of Odisha, originally created for ritual use and as souvenirs for pilgrims to Puri, as well as other temples in Odisha. The Kalighat Paintings are watercolor paintings done on mill-made paper by the scroll painters-cum-potters that migrated from rural Bengal to the city of Calcutta in the nineteenth century. [21] Archer’s insistence on Western influence on Kalighat paintings is further weakened by flaws in his methodology. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. From the depiction of Hindu gods, god, and other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of themes. Kalighat painting originated in the 19th century Kolkata, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple of Kalighat. Occidental- Occidental Kalighat paintings depict the day-to-day chores a nd lives of people, the stories of the warriors and fighters during the Independence like that of Rani Lakshmi Bai”. Kalighat is a locality of Kolkata, in Kolkata district, West Bengal, India. Although woodblock printing on fabrics has been in India for centuries, the paper adaptation of woodblock printing appeared relatively late, because of the late entry and early exit due to advent of lithography the Battala woodcut printing had a remarkably short run. Initially these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. The Bengali Renaissance or simply Bengal Renaissance, was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the 19th century to the early 20th century dominated by Bengali Hindu community. Kalighat is a Hindu temple dedicated to Goddess Kali. The Bengali people are its dominant ethnolinguistic tribe. Occidental- The Occidental Kalighat Paintings These paintings depict the day-to-day chores and lives of people, the stories of the warriors and fighters during the Independence like that of Rani Lakshmi Bai. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Kalighat paintings reached its zenith between 1850 and 1890 with representations of varied styles, compositions, and colours. Images of Durga, Lakshmi, and Annapurna were also popular, especially during the Durga Puja festival. K.G. The music of West Bengal includes multiple indigenous musical genres such as Baul, Ramprasadi, Bishnupuri Classical, Kirtan, Shyama Sangeet, Rabindra Sangeet, Nazrul Geeti, Dwijendrageeti, Prabhati Sangeet, Agamani-Vijaya, Patua Sangeet, Gambhira, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya, Bengali Rock. These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’ were said to be half Hindu and half Muslim and practised Islam. Painted mostly on inexpensive mill-made paper or cloth with swift brushstrokes and homemade dyes, traditional Kalighat paintings originated in the 19th century. Shop unique custom made Canvas Prints, Framed Prints, Posters, Tapestries, and more. This trend continued up to the early part of the twentieth century and these paintings ended up in museums and private collections. Kalighat Paintings can be divided into two different styles - Oriental style and Occidental style, based particularly on the varied motifs and themes that are being used in both types. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of prehistoric times, such as the petroglyphs found in places like Bhimbetka rock shelters. Indian court painting, 16th-19th century. Some of the most popular motifs from this type include Rama-Sita, Radha-Krishna, goddess Durga, goddess Laksmi, goddess Annapurna, Hanuman, Shiva and Parvati, among others. The family members or the community members, would sit together and ground the ingredients to make the dyes, colors and some would draw the outlines of the main figures in the painting and while others would … The entire family of Mukul Dey had artistic talents, the brother Manishi Dey was a well-known painter, and his two sisters, Annapura and Rani, were accomplished in arts and crafts as well. This is an unofficial website intended to advertise Occidental and aggregate modern resources from the whole Occidental … Jamini Roy was an Indian painter. Pattachitra or Patachitra is a general term for traditional, cloth-based scroll painting, based in the eastern Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal. One of the oldest neighbourhoods in South Kolkata, Kalighat is also densely populated — with a history of cultural intermingling with the various foreign incursions into the area over time. They painted heroic characters like Tipu Sultan and Rani Lakshmibai. Kalighat paintings were made by the patua community, the paintings depict gods and daily lifestyle of people. The city name Calcutta is derived from word Kalighat. Originally named Bijoy Chandra, Manishi was the fifth child, and third son, of Purnashashi Devi and Kula Chandra Dey. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama charita manas. Following his appointment to the painting department in 1951, he proceeded to define the school's character by imbuing it with the vision of his former teacher Binode Bihari Mukherjee, a pioneer of modern art in India.. Kalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile produced in Isfahan, Iran, and in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. As a part of the Bengal Presidency, it also hosted the region's most advanced political and cultural centers during British rule. The Oriental Kalighatpaintings depict gods, goddesses, mythological characters as well as scenes from religious Hindu texts. Script error: The function "getCommonsLink" does not exist. Battala woodcut prints are the woodcut relief prints produced in the Battala region of Calcutta. Because of the short run, cheap paper and humid conditions of the region very few of these prints have survived. From the depiction of Hindu gods, god, and other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of subjects, including many depictions of everyday life. A novel programme required formidable leadership and teachers with pedagogical values. They set up institutions that imparted a European style of academic training to Indian artists. Spurred by Mukherjee's emphasis on Indian folk … Occidental is an international auxiliary language created by Edgar de Wahl in 1922. Squirrel and goat hair was used to make the brush that was used for Khaligat drawings. 3. Initially, these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. He died in Kolkata at the height of his career at 56 years of age. Kalighat Painting originated in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat (Kolkata, India) in 19 th century. Kalighat paintings flourished during the British raj in India and are a harmonic balance of the artistic ideas between oriental themes and occidental techniques. Such prints were then hand coloured. An important achievement of the Kalighat artists was that they made simple paintings and drawings, which could easily be reproduced by lithography. The painting originated as a souvenir item associated with the Kali temple of Kalighat.Initially the paintings portrayed Goddess Kali and her tales of defeating the demons. Kalighat painting. Later academic training institutions were set up in Bengal imparting European style of art for the Indian artists by British patrons. He was also a noted writer, particularly for children. He was honoured with the State award of Padma Bhushan in 1955. Drawings and Paintings of Kalighat by Mukul Dey, The Painters of Kalighat: 19th Century Relics of a Once Flourishing Indian Folk Art Killed by Western Mass Production Methods by Mukul Dey, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Kalighat_painting&oldid=721848276, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Abanindranath Tagore was the principal artist and creator of the "Indian Society of Oriental Art". Pattachitras are a component of an ancient Bengali narrative art, originally serving as a visual device during the performance of a song. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Kalighat painting. Manishi Dey was an Indian painter of the Bengal School of Art. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century West Bengal, India, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Calcutta, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a … It is the former capital of India and the current capital of the Indian state of West Bengal, and occasionally called the "Cultural capital of India". These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’. Meanwhile, the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. Also known as 'Indian style of painting' in its early days, it was associated with Indian nationalism (swadeshi) and led by Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951), but was also promoted and supported by British arts administrators like E. B. Havell, the principal of the Government College of Art, Kolkata from 1896; eventually it led to the development of the modern Indian painting. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama Charita Manas. The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artists like the late Jamini Roy even to this day. Kalighat Painting. Kalighat paintings were simple which could be reproduced by lithography. Along with his brother Abanindranath Tagore, he was counted as one of the earliest modern artists in India. Hindu Patuas are active in the Kalighat and Kumartuli regions of Calcutta, along with some other parts of West Bengal, where they are reduced in number. He was born in Dhaka, Bengal Presidency. They set up institutions that imparted a European style of academic training to Indian artists. The region has been a historical melting point, blending indigenous traditions with cosmopolitan influences from pan-Indian subcontinental empires. Their two sisters, Annapura and Rani, were accomplished in arts and crafts as well. The Occidental school produced paintings that depicted social and political situations brewing in the 19th century- scenes of crimes, women or men feeding their pet cats, birds, and animals, men traveling by elephants, … Manishi Dey was the younger brother of Mukul Dey, a pioneering Indian artist and dry point etcher. In this exercise I also learnt emulation is the best way of learning, hence to get a hands on experience I emulated an occidental Kalighat painting. Another theme depicted, dear to the Bengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his disciples. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. The Patua are an artisan community found in the state of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha in India and parts of Bangladesh. It is believed that most Patuas are actually converts from Hinduism to Islam. Specialties of Kalighat Paintings include clarity of motifs, seamless brushwork, and elaborate use of earthy-Indian hues. Due to the reign of many different rulers in the past, arts and crafts in West Bengal underwent many changes giving an artistic diversity today in the forms of traditional handicrafts, masks, painting and carving, dance, music etc. Today, however, the majority of them are impoverished Muslims who rely on patronage from mainly Hindus, but also increasingly from tourists who buy their painted scrolls, as Frank J. Korom has described and analysed in his book Village of Painters: Narrative Scrolls from West Bengal. Today, they practice customs that are both Hindu and Islamic in nature. The artists also chose to portray secular themes and personalities and in the process played a role in the Independence movement. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bengali language Movement (North Dinajpur), Drawings and Paintings of Kalighat by Mukul Dey, The Painters of Kalighat: 19th Century Relics of a Once Flourishing Indian Folk Art Killed by Western Mass Production Methods by Mukul Dey. Kalighat School was a unique and delightful Blend of the Oriental and the Occidental styles of painting. The main distinguishing facet of the Kalighat paintings is the motifs used in them. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. Kalighat painting. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with tourists. The artists also portrayed themes like Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna and the exploits of Hanuman. The other more contemporary style of Kalighat paintings are the Occidental variety that feature secular and civil themes like crime, women bathing, the evolving role of men and women in the society since the emphasis on women’s education, the hypocritical lives of the quasi-bourgeois, depictions of the freedom struggle, heroes of the struggle including Rani Lakshmi Bai, a girl playing the sitar and other themes … Subramanyan embodied both. He was a student of Rabindranath Tagore's Santiniketan and is considered as a pioneer of drypoint-etching in India. The culture of Kolkata concerns the music, art, museums, festivals, and lifestyle within Kolkata. The Oriental school of Kalighat paintings predominantly features religious figureheads such as Rama, Sita, Durga, Lakshmi, etc. The culture of Bengal defines the cultural heritage of the Bengali people native to eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent, mainly what is today Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley, where the Bengali language is the official and primary language. Meanwhile, the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. Kalighat Paintings: The Story of their Origin When the British invaded India they were fascinated by the literary and artistic culture of the country. Gradually, they have started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. Pattachitra artform is known for its intricate details as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it. These paintings were done on cloth or patas. With the … Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 10,000 years old. Kalighat painting usually portrayed a variety of themes, based on these themes these paintings are classified into two styles namely Oriental and Occidental. The Bengal School of Art commonly referred as Bengal School, was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal, primarily Kolkata and Shantiniketan, and flourished throughout the Indian subcontinent, during the British Raj in the early 20th century. Popularly known as 'Aban Thakur', his books Rajkahini, Budo Angla, Nalak, and Khirer Putul were landmarks in Bengali language children's literature and art. Religious themes (Oriental art) were the primary subject matter but the contemporary society (Occidental art) – especially the babu culture also provided a great deal of visual material to the artists. The paintings of Kalighat have a chequered history and reflect a delightful blend of the traditional oriental art with Indian occidental influences. Kalighat’s paintings were developed in the 19th century around the Kali temple, Kalighat, in Calcutta. The artists played an important role in the Independence movement through the depiction of secular themes and personalities in their paintings. The conquest of Bengal by the Gupta dynasty led the ingress of the northern Indian culture into the ancient Bangladeshi culture which eventually introduced the tradition of theatre in Bangladesh. The paintings can be found in Victoria Memorial Hall in Kolkata and the Naprstek Museum in Prague. He was also the first major exponent of Swadeshi values in Indian art, thereby founding the influential Bengal school of art, which led to the development of modern Indian painting. Oriental Style - The word ‘oriental ’ literally means something belonging to Asia and thus being true to its meaning, this style of painting derives its ideas and themes from religious and mythological tales of the Indian culture. Bengal has a recorded history of 1,400 years. The Kalighat style of painting emerged around the Kali temple in Calcutta simultaneously. Among the deities that the Kalighat artists painted, the goddess Kali was a favorite. They started creating new forms of art and the Kalighat painting was born. These paintings were a part of the Occidental school of Kalighat paintings while the painting with religious and mythological themes was under the Oriental school of Kalighat painting. I chose Kalighat paintings to depict my journey. Only natural dyes are used in Kalamkari, which involves twenty-three steps. The Kalighat School was an agreeable and unique blend of two different styles of painting—the Oriental and the Occidental—and steadily gained popularity. The style is characterized by broad sweeping brush lines, bold colours, and simplification of forms suitable for their mass production.. Kālīghāṭ painting, short-lived style of watercolour painting produced in the 19th century in India by artists in the Calcutta marketplace for sale to pilgrims visiting the Kālīghāṭ temple. In the nineteenth century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. Some Patuas are Hindus, while others are Muslims. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. Gradually, they started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Popularly known as "Davidbabu", in his short life, he made a major contribution to the study of Hindu terracotta and brick temples of Bengal and was also one of the first scholars to write a study of the emerging field of Indian writing in English. The delightful blend of the oriental and occidental styles is another feature that this form gain recognition all over the world. The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artistes like the late Jamini Roy even to this day. The Indian state of West Bengal has a rich cultural and artistic heritage. These paintings were done on cloth or patas. The Battala woodcuts were printed on a very cheap newsprint like paper to keep the cost of these prints low. They may have also been Buddhist at various points in time. The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists–the patuas—to the city. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. This page was last modified on 24 May 2016, at 10:21. Images (2) Jeune femme du Bengal, Calcutta, 1913 (1913) [Jeunes femmes du Bengal, Calcutta, 1913] (1913) Documents (Bengale-Occidental (Inde)) (2 … He was one of the most famous pupils of Abanindranath Tagore, whose artistic originality and contribution to the emergence of art in India remains questionable. The artistes were villagers who travelled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and festivals. Kalighat temple was considered the main centre around which the traditional artists called ‘the pataus’ or ‘painters of cloth’ concentrated. Mukul Chandra Dey was one of five children of Purnashashi Devi and Kula Chandra Dey. While images of Hindu deities dominated the artist’s impressions, Islamic themes featuring prophets, angels and taziyas (tomb models) and other secular depictions were set … Bengal was considered to be the richest part of Islamic medieval India and during the era of the Bengal Sultanate it was described to be a world major trading nation, while during Mughal times, having triggered the proto-industrialization, its economy was worth 12% of global GDP. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with the tourists. These style of paintings depicted contemporary society usually under satirical scrutiny. Such prints were then hand coloured. Bengalis tend to have a special appreciation for art and literature. The artists were villagers who travelled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and various festivals. The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists–the patuas—to the city. They started creating new forms of art and the Kalighat painting was born. Theatre in Bangladesh is believed to have its origin in the 4th century AD in the form of Sanskrit drama. David McCutchion was an English-born academic, and a pioneer in a number of original strands of scholarship in Indian studies before his early death at age 41. 2. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century in West Bengal, India, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Calcutta, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. 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